チャーチ グリム。 妖精辞典 夜明けの妖精詩『C』

英国ドラマ/「ホワイトチャペル4」 全6話。 : 海外ドラマ:つぶやき処

チャーチ グリム

人や家畜を襲う。 Caillagh ny Groagmagh 和名 カラク・ニ・グローマクロ/憂鬱の老婆 地域 マン島 解説 妖婆の姿をした自然界の精霊。 岩の裂け目に落ちたといわれる。 それ以外については、高地地方のカイラック・ヴェーラとよく似ている。 Cailleach Bheur 和名 カイラック・ヴェーラ/カリヤッハ・ヴェーラ/青い妖婆 ブルーハグ 地域 高地地方 解説1 高地地方の青い顔の妖婆。 冬の精霊の擬人化。 解説2 冬の擬人化と思われる巨人の妖婆。 その杖で大地を叩いて廻るので、大地は固くなるのだと思われている。 春が来て打ち負かされると、腹立ちまぎれにその杖をハリエニシダの茂みやヒイラギの根元に投げるので、 そこには決して緑の草が生えてこないと言われる。 カリヤッハ・ヴェーラは、鹿とイノシシの保護者である。 たくさんの丘と結びつきがあるが、わけてもベン・ネヴィスとシーハリオンの丘がそうである。 姿はおおむね恐ろしくて醜いが、時に美しい乙女の姿に変わる話もある。 「バスの女房の話」系のものに登場するが、また「名無しの無之助」にかなり近い話の中では、邪悪なものになっている。 時には、海蛇に姿を変える事もある。 その具体的特徴は、マッケンジーの「スコットランド民間伝承と生活」の中で述べられており、キャンブルも記述している。 Cait Sith 和名 ケイト・シー/妖精猫 フェアリー・キャット /ケット・シー 地域 高地地方 解説1 大きな黒い猫で、胸に一ケ所だけ白い部分がある。 これは妖精のしるしである。 解説2 妖精の仲間の中で、胸に白の斑のある大きな黒猫。 おそらく「猫の王」という話は、イングランド風に変えられているが、ケット・シーにまつわる話のひとつであろう。 Caoineag 和名 クイナック 地域 高地地方 解説 泣くの意。 高地地方のバンシー。 Capelthwaite 和名 キャペルスウェイト 地域 北イングランド 解説 [黒犬/ブラックドッグ] に似た妖精だが、どんな四足獣の姿になる事もできる。 あるものはミルネリープ近くのキャペルスウェイトの小川に出没する。 子牛の番をしたり、農家の人達には親切だが、外で出会うのは縁起のいいことでは無い。 ことに酔った人達はひどい悪戯をされる。 Ca Sith 和名 カー・シー/妖精犬 フェアリー・ドック 地域 高地地方 解説 雄牛程もある大きな犬で、毛の色は濃い緑色である。 イングランドの [黒犬] と非常によく似ている。 Cauld Lad of Hilton 和名 ヒルトンの血の通わぬ子ども/コールド・ラッド・オブ・ヒルトン/ヒルトンの冷たい少年 地域 国境地方 解説1 幽霊またはブラウニーで、服をもらって自由の身になった。 「ギルズランドの血の通わぬ子ども」というのもいたが、これは確実に幽霊である。 解説2 ヒルトン城に出没する [ブラウニー] で、はっきりと幽霊 ゴースト として描かれている。 だが、[ブラウニー] がいつもそうである様に、マントとフードを贈られると出て来なくなる。 Cavel Usteg 和名 キャヴァル・ウスティグ 地域 マンクス 解説 マンクスにいる [水馬/ウォーター・ホース]。 Cearb 和名 キャラブ 地域 高地地方 解説 殺すものの意。 人や家畜を殺す悪霊。 Ceasg 和名 キャースク 地域 高地地方 解説 人魚。 上半身は美しい女の姿で、鮭の身体と尾を持つ。 Church Grim 和名 教会のグリム/チャーチ・グリム/墓守りグリム 地域 ヨークシャー 解説1 教会に住みつくが、暗い嵐の時にしか姿をあらわさない。 真夜中に鐘を鳴らす事がある。 牧師が葬式の説教を読んでいるとき鐘楼の窓にグリムが現れると、 その表情から埋葬された死者が救われるかどうかが分かったという。 解説2 夜になると教会に出没し、よほど陰鬱な嵐にならない限り、決して動こうとしない動物。 真夜中によく鐘を打ち鳴らす。 ときには通夜のお務めをしている牧師が、教会の塔の窓に坐っている姿を見かける事があるが、その顔つきから 牧師は埋葬された人が救われたか、地獄に落ちたかを知る事ができる。 Churn-Milk Peg 和名 チャーン ミルク・ペグ/牛乳をまぜるペグ/チャーン・ミルク・ペッグ/泡だち牛乳のペッグ 地域 ヨークシャー西区 解説 まだ熟れていない木の実を子ども達から守る森の精。 パイプでたばこを吸う。 Cipenapers 和名 キピナペァーズ 地域 ウェールズ 解説 英語の「Kidnappers(人さらい)」をウェールズ語におきかえたもので、妖精の事。 Cluricaune Clurican Cluracan 和名 クルーラコーン/クルーラカーン 地域 アイルランド 解説 レプラコーンとほぼ同じ種類の妖精であるが、キイトリイは僧院に住む悪霊(アビイ・ラバー) とよく似たクルーラコーンの話を採録している。 解説2 ほとんど [レプラカーン] と同類であるアイルランドの妖精だが、キイトリイが伝えているある物語では、 この妖精は [ホブゴブリン] の普通の型に非常に近いものになっている。 そこでは [野生の熊/ワイルド・ベア] と名づけられており、クウェーカー教徒のホーウィー氏という人の 葡萄酒貯蔵室の番をしている。 もし召使いが、樽の栓を閉め忘れる様な事があれば、自分の身体を押し込んでその口をふさぎ、酒がこぼれるのを防ぐ。 クルーラカーンのために食べ物が必ず出しておかねばならないが、もしそれが満足のいくものでなければ、料理人はひどいめに あわされる。 ヨークシャーには「そうともジョージ、おれたちゃあ出てくとこだ」という [ボガート] の話があるが、それと同じ様な 話がクルーラカーンについても語られている。 Coblynau 和名 コブラナイ 地域 ウェールズ 解説1 ウェールズの鉱山に住む妖精。 身長は50センチ程で、鉱夫のような服装をしている。 鉱山に幸運をもたらす。 解説2 [ゴブリン] のウェールズ名。 鉱山堀りで見た目は醜いが人間には危害を加えず、親切である。 身の丈およそ半ヤードで、鉱夫の様な服を着ている。 コブラナイが現れるとその鉱山は栄えるが、彼らがたまの休みで地上に出て来た時に出会うのは恐ろしい。 Coleman Gray Colman Gray 和名 コールマン・グレー/コルマン・グレイ 地域 コーンウォール 解説1 人間にひろわれ、家族のように受け入れられたピスキーの子ども。 ハントがT・クウィラ・クーチ T. Quiller Couch の「ノーツ・アンド・クウィアリー」誌の記事を 引用して紹介している。 解説2 ある農夫が見つけた妖精の小さな男の子の名前。 「スキリーウィデン」と何か似た話である。 Colt-Pixy 和名 子馬ピクシー 地域 ハンプシャー 解説 果樹園を守る子馬の姿をしたホブゴブリン。 Coluinn Gun Cheann 和名 コラン・ガン・ヒヤウン/コラン・ガン・チョウン/首なし胴 ヘッドレス・トランク 地域 高地地方 解説1 頭の無い身体の意。 モラーのマクドナルド家についたバホン。 マクドナルド家の家族には好意的だったが、それ以外のものには悪意を持ち、暗くなってから モラー川のそばを一人で通る男を襲って殺した。 とうとうラーセイのマクラウド家の男に負けて逃げる。 解説2 モーラーのマクドナルド家に付いてた [ボカン] の名前。 この一家の者には親しかったが、近隣の人達には非常に危険であった。 日が暮れてからモーラー川を渡る独身の男を、手当たりしだいに襲っては殺してしまうからである。 最後にはラーセイのマクレオッズ家の者に打ち負かされ、そのあたりを追われる羽目になった。 Cowie 和名 カウイー/コーウィー 地域 国境地方 解説1 ゴランベリー塔に出没したブラウニーのような精霊。 解説2 [ブラウニー] にかなりよく似た妖精。 あるものは、国境地方にあるゴランベリーの塔に出没する。 Cowlug-Sprites 和名 カウラグ・スプライト 地域 国境地方 解説 牡牛の耳を持つ小妖精。 年に一度、国境地方のボウデンとゲイトサイドの村に出る。 この夜を「Cowlug-e'en(牡牛の耳の夜)」という。 Crackerbones 和名 クラッカボーンズ 地域 サマセット 解説 ゴブリンの一種。 Crodh Mara 和名 クロー・マラ/クローヴ・マーラ/海牛 シー・カウ 地域 高地地方 解説1 角のない牛で、海の妖精の持ち物。 気に入った人間への贈り物とされることがある。 解説2 これは海の妖精の仲間であり、害をなさない家畜で、ときには妖精達が自分の気に入った人間にこれを 与える事もある。 Cuachag 和名 クアハック 地域 高地地方 解説 クアイック谷に出没する川の精。 Cughtach 和名 クシュタック 地域 マン島 解説 洞窟に出没する妖精。 Cu Sith 和名 クー・シー/妖精の犬 地域 高地地方 解説 子牛ほどもある大きな犬で、暗緑色をしている。 Cutty Soams 和名 カティ・ソームズ 地域 国境地方 解説 炭坑に住むボギー。 運搬車を引き上げるロープを切るなどのいたずらをした。 Cwn Annwn Cwn y Wybr 和名 クン・アヌン/クーン・アンヌーン/クーン・イ・ウィブル 地域 ウェールズ 解説 [地獄の犬] のウェールズ名。 Cyhyraeth 和名 カイライス/カハラエス 地域 ウェールズ 解説1 災害の前に泣き叫んで、死を予告する精霊。 解説2 泣き叫ぶ妖精。 [バンシー] の一種で、災害の前に泣く。

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死者を天国に導くための「墓守犬」とは…?

チャーチ グリム

's illustration of. The story was inspired by a legend of ghostly black dogs in Dartmoor. A black dog is a of a spectral or demonic entity found primarily in the of the. The black dog is essentially a nocturnal , in some cases a shapeshifter, and is often said to be associated with the or described as a ghost or. Its appearance was regarded as a. It is generally supposed to be larger than a normal and often has large glowing eyes. It is sometimes associated with such as 's appearance at , and also with , places of and ancient pathways. The origins of the black dog are difficult to discern. It is uncertain whether the creature originated in the or elements of. Throughout , dogs have been associated with death. Examples of this are the Welsh , Norse and Greek , all of whom were in some way guardians of the. This association seems to be due to the habits of dogs. It is possible that the black dog is a survival of these beliefs. Black dogs are generally regarded as sinister or malevolent, and a few such as the and Shuck are said to be directly harmful. They may also serve as for witches and warlocks. Some black dogs, however, such as the Gurt Dog in and the Black Dog of the in , are said to behave benevolently. Some, known as guardian black dogs, guide travellers at night onto the right path or guard them from danger. Contents• By locale [ ] Some of the better-known black dogs are the of and of. Various other forms are recorded in folklore in Britain and elsewhere. Other names are Hairy Jack, Padfoot, Skriker, Churchyard Beast, , Capelthwaite, or Mauthe Doog , Hateful Thing, Swooning Shadow, Bogey Beast, or Guytrash , Flanders , Canary Islands and Catalonia. Although the is not a Barghest or Shuck, it can also take the form of a large black dog. Europe [ ] England [ ] Title page of the account of Rev. Abraham Fleming's account of the appearance of the ghostly black dog "" at the church of Bungay, Suffolk in 1577 Black dogs have been reported from almost all the , the exceptions being and. On in southern , the notorious squire was said to have been a huntsman who sold his soul to the Devil. When he died in 1677, black hounds are said to have appeared around his burial chamber. The ghostly huntsman is said to ride with black dogs; this tale inspired to write his well-known story. In , the black hound is called Barguist, Grim, Gytrash, Padfoot, Shag, Skriker or Striker, and Trash. Stories are told of a black dog in , near. Galley Hill in , , is said to have been haunted by a black dog ever since a storm set the gibbet alight sometime in the 18th century. in is said to be haunted by a black dog that prowls the ruins at night. Black Dog Hill and in are named after a dog which is said to be found in the area. A black dog is said to haunt Ivelet Bridge near in , Yorkshire. The dog is allegedly headless, and leaps over the side of the bridge and into the water, although it can be heard barking at night. It is considered a death omen, and reports claim that anybody who has seen it died within a year. The last sighting was around a hundred years ago. A black dog in Hertfordshire haunts the town of near the a collection of Roman and Whomerley Wood. in has long since had rumours of a Black Dog. The Hellhound and the Bastard to name but two. Paranormal societies have investigated the phenomenon, particularly in the 1970s. Barghest [ ] Main article: A Barghest or Barguest is said to roam the and side roads of , preying on passersby, and has also been seen near. To see the monstrous dog is said to be a warning of impending doom. Black Dog of Aylesbury [ ] A man who lived in a village near in would go each morning and night to milk his cows in a distant field. One night on his way there he encountered a sinister black dog, and every night thereafter until he brought a friend along with him. When the dog appeared again he attacked it using the yoke of his milk pails as a weapon, but when he did so the dog vanished and the man fell senseless to the ground. He was carried home alive but remained speechless and paralytic for the rest of his life. Black Dog of Lyme Regis [ ] Near the town of in stood a farmhouse that was haunted by a black dog. This dog never caused any harm, but one night the master of the house in a drunken rage tried to attack it with an. The dog fled to the attic where it leaped out through the ceiling, and when the master struck the spot where the dog vanished he discovered a hidden cache of gold and silver. The dog was never again seen indoors, but to this day it continues to haunt at midnight a lane which leads to the house called Haye Lane or Dog Lane. Dogs who are allowed to stray in this area late at night have often mysteriously disappeared. A in Lyme Regis is named The Old Black Dog, and part of the legend states that the man who discovered the treasure used it to build an inn that originally stood on the site. Black Dog of Newgate [ ] has been said to haunt the for over 400 years, appearing before executions. According to legend, in 1596 a was sent to the prison for witchcraft, but was killed and eaten by starving prisoners before he was given a trial. The dog was said to appear soon after, and although the terrified men killed their guards and escaped, the beast is said to have hunted them down and killed them wherever they fled. Grim or Fairy Grim is the name of a shapeshifting fairy that sometimes took the form of a black dog in the 17th-century pamphlet The Mad Pranks and Merry Jests of Robin Goodfellow. He was also referred to as the Black Dog of Newgate, but though he enjoyed frightening people he never did any serious harm. Black Dog of Northorpe [ ] In the village of in the district of not to be confused with in the district the churchyard was said to be haunted by a "Bargest". Some black dogs are said to be human beings with the power of. In another nearby village there lived an old man who was reputed to be a wizard. It was claimed that he would transform into a black dog and attack his neighbours' cattle. It is uncertain if there was any connection between the barghest and the wizard. Black Dog of Tring [ ] In the parish of , , a named was executed by hanging in 1751 for the drowning murder of Ruth Osborne whom he accused of being a. Colley's spirit now haunts the site of the in the form of a black dog, and the clanking of his chains can also be heard. In one tale a pair of men who encountered the dog saw a burst of flame before it appeared in front of them, big as a with the usual burning eyes and long sharp teeth. After a few minutes it disappeared, either vanishing like a shadow or sinking into the earth. Black Shuck [ ] Main article: In , and the northern parts of , a black dog known as Black Shuck also Old Shuck or Shock is regarded as malevolent, with stories ranging from terrifying people or killing them outright to being a portent of death to themselves or a person close to the victim. There are tales that in 1577 it attacked the church in the market town of Bungay, killing two people and appearing on the same day at the church in the nearby village of , taking the lives of another three and leaving claw marks which remain today. In the parish of is a dreary lane known as Shuck's Lane from its frequent appearances there. If the spot where it was just seen is examined then one may find scorch marks and the smell of. There are also less common tales of a similar dog said to accompany people on their way home in the role of protector rather than an omen of misfortune. Among other possible meanings, the name Shuck is derived from a provincial word meaning shaggy. Capelthwaite [ ] In and adjacent parts of Yorkshire there was a belief in Capelthwaite, who could take the form of any but usually appeared as a large black dog. He took his name from the barn in which he lived called Capelthwaite Barn, near. He performed helpful services for the people on the farm such as rounding up the sheep, but toward outsiders he was very spiteful and mischievous until one day he was banished by a. As both a helper and a trickster the Capelthwaite behaved more like a domestic than a typical black dog. Church Grim [ ] Main article: The Church Grim guards a local Christian and its attached from those who would profane them including thieves, vandals, witches, and warlocks. For this purpose it was the custom to bury a dog alive under the of a church as a. Sometimes the grim will toll the at midnight before a death occurs. At funerals the presiding clergyman may see the dog looking out from the and determine from its "aspect" whether the soul of the departed was bound for or. Another tradition states that when a new churchyard was opened the first man buried there had to guard it against the Devil. To save a human soul from such a duty a black dog was buried in the north part of the churchyard as a substitute. Freybug [ ] is the name of an alleged Black Dog. Gabriel Hounds [ ] Gabriel Hounds are dogs with human heads that fly high through the air, and are often heard but seldom seen. They sometimes hover over a house, and this is taken as a sign that death or misfortune will befall those who dwell within. They are also known as Gabriel Ratchets ratchet being a hound that hunts by scent , Gabble Retchets, and "sky yelpers", and like Yeth Hounds they are sometimes said to be the souls of unbaptised children. Popular conceptions of the Gabriel Hounds may have been partially based on migrating flocks of wild geese when they fly at night with loud honking. In other traditions their leader Gabriel is condemned to follow his hounds at night for the sin of having hunted on Sunday much like the Cornish Dando , and their yelping cry is regarded as a death omen similar to the birds of folklore known as the Seven Whistlers. Guardian Black Dogs [ ] Guardian Black Dogs refer to those relatively rare black dogs that are neither omens of death nor causes of it. Instead they guide lost travellers and protect them from danger. Stories of this type became more widespread starting around the early 1900s. In different versions of one popular tale a man was journeying along a lonely forest road at night when a large black dog appeared at his side and remained there until the man left the forest. On his return journey through the wood the dog reappeared and did the same as before. Years later two convicted prisoners told the that they would have robbed and murdered the wayfarer in the forest that night but were intimidated by the presence of the black dog. Gurt Dog [ ] The Gurt Dog "Great Dog" of Somerset is an example of a benevolent dog. It is said that mothers would allow their children to play unsupervised on the because they believed the Gurt Dog would protect them. It would also accompany lone travellers in the area, acting as a protector and guide. Gytrash [ ] Main article: The Gytrash or Guytrash is a black dog and death omen of that haunts solitary ways and also takes the form of a horse, mule and cow. It was popularised in folklore by its mention in the novel by. Hairy Jack [ ] There are many tales of ghostly black dogs in collected by Ethel Rudkin for her 1938 publication Folklore. Such a creature, known locally as Hairy Jack, is said to haunt the fields and village lanes around , and there have been reported sightings throughout the county from to. Rudkin, who claimed to have seen Hairy Jack herself, formed the impression that black dogs in Lincolnshire were mainly of a gentle nature, and looked upon as a spiritual protector. Hairy Jack was also said to haunt lonely plantations, byways, and waste places where it attacked anyone passing by. Padfoot [ ] In , , and some areas of the local version of the legend is known as Padfoot. A death omen like others of its type, it may become visible or invisible and exhibits certain characteristics that give it its name. It is known to follow people with a light padding sound of its paws, then appearing again in front of them or at their side. It can utter a roar unlike the voice of any known animal, and sometimes the trailing of a chain can be heard along with the pad of its feet. It is best to leave the creature alone, for if a person tries to speak to or attacks it then it will have power over them. One story tells of a man who tried to kick the Padfoot and found himself dragged by it through hedge and ditch all the way to his home and left under his own window. Although usually described as black, another tale concerns a man who encountered a white Padfoot. He attempted to strike it with his stick but it passed completely through, and he ran home in fear. Soon afterward he fell sick and died. Skriker and Trash [ ] The Skriker or Shrieker of Lancashire and Yorkshire is a death omen like many others of its type, but it also wanders invisibly in the woods at night uttering loud, piercing shrieks. It may also take visible form as a large black dog with enormous paws that make a splashing sound when walking, like "old shoes walking in soft mud". For this reason the Skriker is also known as Trash, another word for trudge or slog. The name Skriker is also derived from a dialect word for screech in reference to its frightful utterances. Yeth Hound and Wisht Hounds [ ] See also: The Yeth Hound or Yell Hound is a black dog found in folklore. According to Brewer's , the Yeth Hound is a headless dog, said to be the spirit of an child, that rambles through the woods at night making wailing noises. It is also mentioned in the , a 19th-century collection of folklore by. It may have been one inspiration for the ghost dog in The Hound of the Baskervilles by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, described as "an enormous coal-black hound, but not such a hound as mortal eyes have ever seen" - with fire in his eyes and breath Hausman 1997:47. The Wisht or Wish Hounds wisht is a dialect word for "ghostly" or "haunted" are a related phenomenon and some folklorists regard them as identical to the Yeth Hounds. on Dartmoor in southern Devon is said to be the home of the Wisht Hounds as they make their hunting forays across the moor. The road known as the Abbot's Way and the valley of the are favoured haunts of the hounds. Their huntsman is presumably the Devil, and it is said that any dog that hears the crying of the hounds will die. One legend states that the ghost of sometimes drove a black hearse coach on the road between and at night, drawn by headless horses and accompanied by demons and a pack of headless yelping hounds. notes that black coach legends are "relatively modernised versions" of and traditions. further defines whish or whisht as "a common term for that weird sorrow which is associated with mysterious causes". Cornwall [ ]• A black dog is said to have appeared to wrestlers at Whiteborough, a near. A black dog was once said to haunt the main road between and Launceston near. During the 1800s a Cornish mining accident resulted in numerous deaths and led to the local area being haunted by a pack of black dogs. The parish of is haunted by a ghostly pack of dogs known as Cheney Hounds that once belonged to an old squire named Cheney. It is uncertain how he or the dogs died, but on "Cheney Downs" the dogs are sometimes seen or heard in rough weather. The area around is haunted by a pack of hunting dogs known as. Dando was an unrepentantly sinful priest and an avid huntsman who was carried off to Hell by the Devil for his wickedness. Since then, Dando and his hounds are sometimes heard in wild chase across the countryside, especially on Sunday mornings. The Devil's Dandy Dogs are another Cornish version of the Wild Hunt. They are often conflated with Dando's Dogs but are much more dangerous. The huntsman is the Devil himself and his dogs are not just ghosts but true hellhounds, black in colour with horns and fiery breath. One night a herdsman was journeying home across the moors and would have been overtaken by the Dandy Dogs, but when he knelt and began praying they went off in another direction in pursuit of other prey. Scotland [ ]• The "Muckle Black Tyke" is a black dog that presides at the and is supposed to be the Devil himself. Scottish black dogs also serve as treasure guardians. Near the village of is a , and it is said that the person brave enough to move it will find a chest guarded by a black dog. Wales [ ]• In the black dog counterpart was the or "Dog of Darkness", a frightful apparition of a with baleful breath and blazing red eyes. Also related are the spectral , connected with the realm of referred to in the and elsewhere. However, they are described as being dazzling white rather than black in the medieval text. Another ghostly black dog is said to haunt , with some witnesses claiming it to have been accompanied by a. [ ] Channel Islands and Isle of Man [ ]• In the is the legend of the , ' black dog' in , also styled phonetically or Mawtha Doo. It is said to haunt the environs of. People believe that anyone who sees the dog will die soon after the encounter with the dog. It is mentioned by in The Lay of the Last Minstrel: For he was speechless, ghastly, wan Like him of whom the Story ran Who spoke the spectre hound in Man. Also from the Isle of Man is a tale of a guardian black dog that prevented the deaths of several men. A fishing boat was waiting in Peel Harbour for its to command the crew on a night's fishing. They waited all night but the skipper never came. In the early morning a sudden storm sprang up in which the boat might have been lost. When the skipper rejoined his crew he told them that his way had been blocked by a great black dog, and whichever way he turned it always stood before him until he finally turned back. In the of , there are two named dogs. One, Tchico Tchi-coh two words for dog, whence cur , is headless, and is supposed to be the phantom of a past of Guernsey, Gaultier de la Salle, who was hanged for falsely accusing one of his vassals. The other dog is known as Bodu or tchen Bodu tchen being dog in. His appearance, usually in the Clos du Valle, foretells death of the viewer or someone close to him. The real reason for the superstition of the Black Dog of Bouley Bay is thought to be due to smugglers. If the superstition was fed and became 'real' to the locals, then the bay at night would be deserted and the smuggling could continue in security. The pier at Bouley Bay made this an exceptionally easy task. A local pub retains the name the "Black Dog". On mainland the Rongeur d'Os wanders the streets of on winter nights as a phantom dog, gnawing on bones and dragging chains along with it. Mainland Europe [ ] Oude Rode Ogen "Old Red Eyes" or the " Beast of Flanders" was a spirit reported in , in the 18th century who would take the form of a large black dog with fiery red eyes. In and the it was said that the devil would appear in the form of a large black dog. The earliest known report of a black dog was in in AD 856, when one was said to materialise in a church even though the doors were shut. The church grew dark as it padded up and down the aisle, as if looking for someone. The dog then vanished as suddenly as it had appeared. In there are stories of a crewed by the souls of criminals with hellhounds set to guard them and inflict on them a thousand tortures. They are usually said to be either incarnations of the Devil or a shape-changing sorcerer. United States [ ] The legend of a small black dog has persisted in , Connecticut since the 19th century. The dog is said to haunt the : a series of rock ridges and gorges that serve as a popular recreation area. The first non-local account came from W. Pychon in The Connecticut Quarterly, in which it is described as a death omen. It is said that, "If you meet the Black Dog once, it shall be for joy; if twice, it shall be for sorrow; and the third time shall bring death. " A New England black dog story comes from southeastern Massachusetts in the area known, by some, as the. In the mid-1970s, the town of was, reportedly, terrorized by a large, black dog that caused a panic. A local fireman saw it attacking ponies. Local police unsuccessfully searched for it, at first but, eventually, a police officer sighted the dog walking along train tracks and shot at it. Apparently, the bullets had no effect on the animal and it wandered off, never to be seen again. "Great black". His appearance portends the moral degeneration of the human world, when and do not behave as they should and humanity has gone astray from ethical livelihood. Arabia [ ] , although not necesarily evil, but often thought of as malevolent entities, are thought to use black dogs as their mounts. The negative depiction of dogs probably derives from their close association with "eating the dead" relieshing bones and digging out graves. The jinn likewise are often said to roam around graveyards and eating corpses. These characteristics relates them to each other. Other colours [ ] England [ ]• The Gallytrot or Galleytrot of and Suffolk is a large white dog with a shadowy or indeterminate outline, and will chase anyone who runs away from it. The word is derived from gally, to frighten. Scotland [ ]• The of the is dark green in colour and the size of a stirk a yearling calf. They were usually kept tied up in the brugh as watchdogs, but sometimes they accompanied the women during their expeditions or were allowed to roam about alone, making their lairs among the rocks. They moved silently, had large paws the size of adult human hands, and had a loud baying that could be heard far out at sea. It is said that anyone who heard them bark three times was overcome with terror and died of fright. Isle of Man [ ]• The dogs belonging to the ferrishyn or Manx fairies can be found in a wide variety of colours. They are sometimes described as white with red ears or wearing red caps or may be found in all colours of the rainbow. In popular culture [ ] Main article: The legend has been referenced many times in popular culture. One of the most famous ghostly black dogs in fiction appears in Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's , where a large dog-like creature haunts a family estate. is brought in to determine if the dog is in fact real or supernatural. This story makes use of folktales where black dogs symbolize death. [ ] Another famous ghostly black dog may be found in 's : the "Grim", a "giant, spectral dog that haunts churchyards" is "the worst omen of death" according to Harry Potter's divination teacher,. Another reference to the legend can be found in the same book, , Padfoot being the nickname of Sirius Black, an who can turn into a large black dog and mistaken as the Grim by Harry. See also [ ]• 687—88. Stone, Alby Infernal Watchdogs, Soul Hunters and Corpse Eaters in Trubshaw 2005, pp. 36—37. McEwan 1986, p. 147. Stone, Alby Infernal Watchdogs, Soul Hunters and Corpse Eaters in Trubshaw 2005, pp. 44—45. Stone, Alby Infernal Watchdogs, Soul Hunters and Corpse Eaters in Trubshaw 2005, p. Stone, Alby Infernal Watchdogs, Soul Hunters and Corpse Eaters in Trubshaw 2005, pp. 54—55. 135—40. 286—7. Books. google. com. 2008-05-19. Retrieved 2019-02-18. Offut, Jason 2019. Chasing American Monsters. Woodbury, Minnesota: Llewellyn Books. 207—8. 27—36. Guiley 2008, p. Redfern 2004, pp. 36, 52, 182-4. 275—6. 129. Wilson and Lupton 2013, p. Guiley 2007, 2000, p. 61 variant of "Black Shuck". Steiger 2011, p. 770. Briggs 1976, p. 74—5. Trubshaw 2005, p. Fields 1998, p. 366. Crosby 2000, pp. 14, 19, 26, 165. Feldwick 2006, 2007, pp. 89—90• Matthews 2004, p. 35—36. Janaway 2005, p. Stewart 1990, pp. 49—50. Real British Ghosts. Hartland 1906, pp. 235—6. Hartland 1906, pp. 238—41. Udal 1922, pp. 167—8. Briggs 1977, pp. 138—40. "The Black Dog Legend"• Clark 2007, pp. 86—87. Collier 1841, p. Gutch and Peacock 1908, p. Thiselton-Dyer 1893, pp. 106—8. Hartland 1906, p. 237. Briggs 1977, p. 137. Anomalies. 287. 237—8. Shuckland. Briggs 1976, p. 223 "Hobgoblin". Simpson, Jacqueline 1994. Penguin Book of Scandinavian Folktales. Penguin Books. Henderson 1879, p. 274. 194. Briggs 1976, pp. 74—5. Rose, Carol 2001. Giants, Monsters, and Dragons. New York: W. Hardwick 1872, pp. 153—4. Henderson 1879, pp. 129—32. Wright 1913, p. 195—7. Wood, Juliette. Codd, Daniel. Haunted Lincolnshire. Tempus Publishing Ltd 2006 pp. 75—78. Gutch and Peacock 1908, p. 273—4. Wright 1913, pp. 194—5. Harland and Wilkinson 1867, pp. 91—2. Hartland 1906, p. 238. Brewer. Legendarydartmoor. 2007-10-28. Retrieved 2012-06-18. 150. 440. xix. Hunt 1865, p. 260. Hardwick 1872, p. 192. 44; also Semmens, Jason. '"Whyler Pystry": A Breviate of the Life and Folklore-Collecting Practices of William Henry Paynter 1901—1976 of Callington, Cornwall. " Folklore 116, No. 1 2005 pp. 75—94. Thiselton-Dyer 1893, p. 108. Hunt 1865, p. 151. Hunt 1865, pp. 247—51. Hunt 1865, pp. 251—2. Hartland 1906, p. 244. Gantz 1976, pp. 46—47. Pugh 1990, pp. 19, 67• Briggs 1976, p. 301. de Garis, Marie 1986 Folklore of Guernsey, The Guernsey Press, ASIN B0000EE6P8• Jersey Maritime Museum for references to the folklore of the Black Dog• Wright 1846, p. 128. Warsage, Rodolphe de Sorcellerie et Cultes Populaires en Wallonie, Noir Dessein, 1998. Varner, Gary R. Creatures in the mist: little people, wild men and spirit beings around the world : a study in comparative mythology in Algora Publishing 2007, pp. 114—15. Stejskal, Martin 1991. Prague: Paseka. McNab, Chris "Mythical Monsters: The scariest creatures from legends, books, and movies" in Scholastic Publishing 2006, pp. 8-9. Thiselton-Dyer 1893, p. 289. Burchell 2007, pp. 1, 24. Rouse, W. 1901. Internet Sacred Text Archive. Pali Text Society. Retrieved 2019-09-27. Amira El Zein: The Evolution of the Concept of Jinn from Pre-Islam to Islam'. 264• Briggs 1976, p. 183. Campbell 1900, pp. 30—32. 6 Sec. Morrison 1911, p. Bloomsburry. Bibliography [ ]• Barber, Sally and Barber, Chips 1988, 1990. Dark and Dastardly Dartmoor. Obelisk Publications. Bord, Colin and Bord, Janet 1980, 1981. Alien Animals. Book Club Associates. Bowker, James 1887. Goblin Tales of Lancashire. London: W. Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable first pub. 1870. 1976. An Encyclopedia of Fairies. Pantheon Books. Briggs, Katharine 1977. British Folk Tales and Legends. Burchell, Simon 2007. Heart of Albion Press. 1900. Superstitions of the Highlands and Islands of Scotland. Glasgow: James MacLehose and Sons. Clark, James 2007. Haunted London. Tempus Publishing. 1841. The Mad Pranks and Merry Jests of Robin Goodfellow reprinted from anon. 1628 ed. London: Percy Society. Crosby, Alan 2000. The Lancashire Dictionary of Dialect, Tradition and Folklore. Smith Settle. 1980. Andre Deutsch. Deane, Tony and Shaw, Tony 2003. Folklore of Cornwall. Tempus Publishing. 1966, 1990 [1911]. Citadel Press. Feldwick, Matthew 2006, 2007. Haunted Winchester. Tempus Publishing. Fields, Kenneth 1998. Sigma Leisure. Gantz, Jeffrey trans 1976. Penguin Classics. 1986. Folklore of Guernsey. The Guernsey Press. B0000EE6P8. 1911. The Folk-Lore of Hertfordshire. Bishop's Stortford. 1932. A Second Manx Scrapbook. Arrowsmith. 2000, 2007 [1992]. The Encyclopedia of Ghosts and Spirits 3rd ed. Facts on File. Guiley, Rosemary Ellen 2008. Ghosts and Haunted Places. Infobase Publishing. and 1908. County Folklore Vol. David Nutt. 1872. Traditions, Superstitions and Folklore. Manchester: A. and Wilkinson, T. 1867. Lancashire Folklore. London: Frederick Warne and Co. 1906. English Fairy and Other Folk Tales. Walter Scott Publishing Co. and Hausman, Loretta 1997. Martin's Press. Henderson, William 1879. Folklore of the Northern Counties of England and the Borders 2nd ed. 1865. Popular Romances of the West of England Vol. London: John Camden Hotten. Janaway, John 2005. Haunted Places of Surrey. Countryside Books. 2004. Countryside Books. McEwan, Graham J. 1986. Mystery Animals of Britain and Ireland. Robert Hale Ltd. and 1977. Phenomena: A Book of Wonders. Thames Hudson Ltd. hardback. paperback. 1911. Manx Fairy Tales. London: David Nutt. and Semmens, Jason 2008. The Cornish Witch-finder: William Henry Paynter and the Witchery, Ghosts, Charms and Folklore of Cornwall. Federation of Old Cornwall Societies. Pugh, Jane 1990. Welsh Ghostly Encounters. Gwasg Carreg Gwalch. 1977. Folklore, Myths and Legends of Britain. Readers Digest Association. 2004. Three Men Seeking Monsters. Pocket Books. Rickard, Bob and Michell, John 2000. The Rough Guide to Unexplained Phenomena. Rough Guides Ltd. 1831. Fairy Tales, Now First Collected: To which are prefixed two dissertations: 1. On Pygmies. On Fairies. Elibron Classics [facsimile], 2007. See pp. 137—9 "The Mauthe Doog". and 2000, 2003. Oxford Dictionary of English Folklore. Oxford University Press. 2011. Real Monsters, Gruesome Critters, and Beasts from the Darkside. Visible Ink Press. Stewart, Frances D. 1990. Surrey Ghosts Old and New. AMCD. 1893. The Ghost World. Trubshaw, Robert Nigel ed. 2005. Explore Phantom Black Dogs. Heart of Albion Press. 1922. Dorsetshire Folklore. Waldron, David and Reeve, Chris 2010. Shock! The Black Dog of Bungay: A Case Study in Local Folklore. Hidden Publishing. and Simpson, Jacqueline 2005. The Lore of the Land: A Guide to England's Legends, from Spring-heeled Jack to the Witches of Warboys. Penguin. Wright, Elizabeth Mary 1913. Rustic Speech and Folk-Lore. Humphrey Milford, Oxford University Press. 1923. The English Dialect Dictionary Vol. Humphrey Milford, Oxford University Press. 1846. Literature, Popular Superstitions, and History of England in the Middle Ages Vol. London: John Russell Smith. Further reading [ ]• Burchell, Simon 2008 , Heart of Albion. Sherwood, Simon J. 2010 Apparitons of Black Dogs in Smith, Matthew D. , McFarland, External links [ ] Wikimedia Commons has media related to.

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